July 22, 2011 Editor 0
TRIZ (pronounced /ˈtriːz/) is a romanized acronym for Russian: Теория решения изобретательских задач (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch) meaning “The theory of solving inventor’s problems” or “The theory of inventor’s problem solving”. It was developed by a Soviet engineer and researcher Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues starting in 1946. It has been evolving ever since.
Today, TRIZ is a methodology, tool set, knowledge base, and model-based technology for generating innovative ideas and solutions for problem solving. TRIZ provides tools and methods for use in problem formulation, system analysis, failure analysis, and patterns of system evolution (both ‘as-is’ and ‘could be’). TRIZ, in contrast to techniques such as brainstorming (which is based on random idea generation), aims to create an algorithmic approach to the invention of new systems, and the refinement of old systems.
Some TRIZ is in the public domain. Some TRIZ resides in knowledge bases held by commercial consulting organizations. A complete and open TRIZ development process is not yet evident. Various camps vie for control of TRIZ and interpretation of its findings and applications.
According to commercial promoters of TRIZ, as a collage of concepts and tools TRIZ has been employed by many Fortune 500 companies in the United States and other countries to solve manufacturing problems and create new products. These promoters claim that companies such as BAE Systems, CSC, Procter & Gamble, Ford Motor Company, Boeing, Philips Semiconductors, Samsung, LG Electronics, and many others have used TRIZ concepts to systematically solve complex technical and organizational problems. They also claim that the use of TRIZ has been expanding into other areas, and that TRIZ has been used successfully in biomedical research, medicine, computer programming, business management, etc. These claims have not been independently confirmed.
ARIZ consists of a program (sequence of actions) for the exposure and solution of contradictions, i.е. the solution of problems. ARIZ includes: the program itself, information safeguards supplied by the knowledge base (shown by an arrow in fig.1.1), and methods for the control of psychological factors, which are a component part of the methods for developing a creative imagination. Furthermore, sections of ARIZ are predetermined for the selection of problems and the evaluation of the received solution.
Su-Field Analysis (structural substance-field analysis) produces a structural model of the initial technological system, exposes its characteristics, and with the help of special laws, transforms the model of the problem. Through this transformation the structure of the solution that eliminates the shortcomings of the initial problem is revealed. Su-Field Analysis is a special language of formulas with which it is possible to easily describe any technological system in terms of a specific (structural) model. A model produced in this manner is transformed according to special laws and regularities, thereby revealing the structural solution of the problem.
Classification of a system of standard solutions for inventive problems, as well as the standards themselves, is built on the basis ofSu-Field Analysis of technological systems. Su-Field Analysis is also a component part of the program ARIZ (shown by arrows in fig. 1).
The use of different elements of TRIZ for specific functions are shown in Table 1: “Functions and Structure of TRIZ.” A system of laws for the development of technology, a system of standards for the solution of inventive problems, and Su-Field Analysis are used to forecast the development of technology, to search for and select problems, and to evaluate the received solution. For the development of a creative imagination, all elements of TRIZ can be used, although particular stress is given to methods for developing a creative imagination. The solution of inventive problems is realized with the help of laws for the development of technological systems, the knowledge base, Su-Field Analysis, ARIZ, and, in part, with the help of methods for the development of a creative imagination.
By means of TRIZ, both known and unknown types of problems could be solved. Known (standard) types of inventive problems are solved with the use of the knowledge base, and unknown (nonstandard) – with the use of АRIZ. As experience grows, solutions for a class of know types of problems increase and exhibit a structure.
At the present time, computer programs have been developed on the basis of TRIZ that try to provide intellectual assistance to engineers and inventors during the solution of technological problems. These programs also try to reveal and forecast emergency situations and undesirable occurrences.
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